Expected H-D curves at different stages of development obtained with model I. A was interpreted as the height of the largest trees in the stand, and the trend of A is hence curves related to the height growth of the largest trees in the stand.
Growth in parameter B, on the other hand, moves the curve to the right in the coordinate, which means that it is associated with diameter growth. This phenomenon can be seen in Fig.
Selection system reduces long-term volume growth in Fennoscandic uneven-aged Norway spruce forests.
Relative abundance and potential dispersal range of intersterility groups of Heterobasidion mya rose porn in pure and mixed forests. A combination of both model approaches leads to generalized height-diameter h-d models, which can be locally and temporarily calibrated.
From a more general point of view mixed models also provide a solution to the problem of correlated errors that results from grouped data structures and they quantify the variability between groups via random effects Pinheiro and Bates Table 2 Number of sample plots by soil depth category and tree species used in the development of the longitudinal height-diameter models Soil depth category only mineral soil SD These qualities are particularly advantageous when, as is the case here, the parameters, and thereby the realisation, of height curves are to be described as a function of site, stand, and single tree variables.
Additionally it is very important that the model is linear which enables the estimation of site, stand and tree effects and their validation for curves in a one-step procedure using gamm. This corresponds to a log-linear model, but, using generalized models no transformation bias occurs when the prediction is back-transformed.
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