In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals LGBs and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals.
The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress —explaining anne curtis kita suso stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes.
This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.
The study of mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGB populations has been complicated by the debate on the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder during the s and early s. That debate posited a gay-affirmative perspective, which sought to declassify homosexuality, against a conservative perspective, which sought to retain the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder Bayer, lesbian Although the lesbian on classification ended in with the removal of homosexuality from the second edition free the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual prone Mental Disorders DSM ; American Psychiatric Association,its heritage has lasted.
This heritage has tainted discussion on mental health of prone and free men by associating—even equating—claims that LGB people have higher prevalences of mental disorders than heterosexual people with the historical antigay stance and the stigmatization of LGB persons Bailey, However, a fresh look at the issues should make it clear that whether LGB populations have higher prevalences of mental disorders is unrelated to the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder.
A retrospective analysis would suggest that the attempt to find a scientific answer in that debate rested on flawed logic.
The debated scientific question was, Is homosexuality a mental disorder? The operationalized research question that pervaded the debate was, Do homosexuals have facetime nudes prevalences of mental disorders? But the research did not accurately operationalize the scientific question.
The question of whether homosexuality should be considered a mental disorder is a question about classification. It can be answered by debating which behaviors, cognitions, or emotions should be considered indicators of a mental disorder American Psychiatric Association,
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